Zimbabwean sculptors strategically acquire their raw materials from local sources, primarily in the northern, eastern, and central regions of the country. The stones of choice for these artisans belong to the geological family of Serpentinite. Serpentine, a sedimentary rock originally laid down on a sandy seafloor, has undergone metamorphism over hundreds of millions of years due to intense heat and pressure, transforming it into durable stone. Enriched with iron, Serpentines exhibit a rust color as they weather. These geological formations are prominently featured in the Great Dyke, a horseshoe-shaped structure extending from the north and east to the center of Zimbabwe. The ongoing natural weathering processes unveil a spectrum of colors ranging from yellow and green to brown and black.

Serious sculptors in Zimbabwe favor the toughest varieties of serpentine, including springstone, fruit serpentine, and leopard rock. These dense stones boast fine grains and a uniform structure, rendering them ideal raw materials for sculpting. The stones are not only locally abundant but also symbolize the geological wealth embedded in the Great Dyke. This region, with its diverse array of minerals, offers sculptors a palette of over 200 colors, each with varying degrees of hardness on the Mohs scale. Granite, with a hardness rating of 6, adds another dimension to the rich tapestry of stones available, making Zimbabwe a haven for artists seeking exceptional raw materials for their sculptures.


Verdite is an extraordinary and exquisite stone renowned for its rare quality, capturing the enchanting and mysterious colors reminiscent of an ancient region in Africa. Much like the ever-changing sea, it boasts an infinite variety of delightful shades and patterns, typically displaying a green base with inclusions of blues, gold, red, and browns. Dating back over 3500 million years, Verdite is found among the world's oldest rocks and is exclusively located in areas where gold was first discovered in Africa centuries ago. It belongs to the Serpintonites family and is distributed in various lens-shaped pods across a 25-kilometer range. The stone lacks cleavage and is infused with intrusions of corundum (ruby) crystals, quartz, calcite, and mica. The mineral chromium imparts Verdite with its distinct rich green color, and the variety known as Ruby Verdite can be exceptionally hard, as corundum ranks as the second hardest stone on earth.


Zimbabwean Springstone, a unique and captivating stone, is a sculptor's favorite canvas, mined in Southern Africa. Known for its fine texture and sturdy composition, it's the top choice for artists crafting intricate masterpieces. Its dark, occasionally mottled appearance provides a captivating backdrop for expressing the elegance of the human form and the spirit of wildlife. Beyond a raw material, Zimbabwean Springstone symbolizes the nation's artistic excellence, showcasing sculptors' ingenuity in transforming it into culturally rich and contemporary pieces. The enduring legacy of this stone lives on as artists continue to harness its beauty, sculpting narratives of heritage, resilience, and the evolving stories within Zimbabwean art.

Red jasper

Red Jasper, a striking variety of the Jasper mineral, stands out with its rich and vibrant crimson hues. Composed of microgranular quartz and/or cryptocrystalline chalcedony, Red Jasper is renowned for its captivating opaque appearance, exhibiting a distinctive combination of red tones that range from deep, earthy reds to brighter, more fiery shades. This mineral often showcases fascinating patterns and veins within its composition, adding to its visual appeal. Beyond its aesthetic charm, Red Jasper is believed to possess grounding and stabilizing properties, making it a popular choice for spiritual and metaphysical practices. Its warm and invigorating color, coupled with its historical significance as a protective stone, makes Red Jasper a sought-after gem for both ornamental and holistic purposes, appealing to collectors, artisans, and individuals seeking a connection with the earth's energies.


Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, is valued for its distinctive appearance and versatile applications, including its use in sculptures. Known for its subtle shades of white and gray, Dolomite provides sculptors with a versatile canvas for creating intricate and detailed forms. Its relatively soft composition facilitates the carving process, allowing artists to express delicate details and achieve a refined aesthetic in their sculptures. Dolomite's subdued beauty and smooth texture contribute to the creation of artworks that emanate a sense of sophistication and timeless elegance. Additionally, Dolomite is often utilized in both traditional and contemporary sculptures due to its ease of carving and ability to showcase intricate designs. Whether employed for figurative or abstract creations, Dolomite remains a favored choice among sculptors seeking a medium that combines aesthetic appeal with workability.

Butter jade

In the artistic landscape of Zimbabwe, Butter Jade emerges as a revered gem celebrated for its velvety and radiant demeanor, carving a distinct niche as a prominent medium for stone sculptures. This exquisite stone, sought after for its delicate and refined characteristics, has captivated Zimbabwean artists with its subtle elegance. The inherent smoothness of Butter Jade, coupled with its calming color palette, provides an ideal canvas for artisans to intricately carve sculptures that radiate tranquility and sophistication. Within the realm of Zimbabwean artistry, Butter Jade sculptures transcend mere aesthetics, embodying rich cultural themes and seamlessly illustrating the symbiosis between nature and humanity. The dexterity of the artists lies in skillfully tapping into the unique properties of Butter Jade, crafting pieces that resonate with an enduring sense of serenity and timeless allure.

Lepidolite Stone

Lepidolite Stone, belonging to the mica group of minerals, has gained recognition as a significant source of lithium, extracted as a by-product during lithium mining. Although lacking a rich folklore history, this mineral is experiencing a surge in popularity today. Traditionally overlooked in jewelry due to its challenging nature for cutting, contemporary jewellers are increasingly mastering the art of shaping Lepidolite. This newfound skill is allowing the stone to carve a distinctive space in the current market. The stone's attractive pink to violet shades are proving to be alluring for both jewellers and buyers alike. In Zimbabwe, the use of Lepidolite Stone is gradually finding its way into artistic expressions, where sculptors are exploring its unique qualities to create distinctive pieces that incorporate its aesthetic appeal with contemporary artistic sensibilities.


Leopard rock

Leopard Rock, a stunningly colored stone adorned with spots reminiscent of a leopard's markings, bears a striking resemblance to serpentine, featuring a creamy yellow hue adorned with distinctive black blotches. This unique rock is exclusive to Zimbabwe, where the only known deposit is found. Renowned for its inherent challenges in carving, only seasoned sculptors dare to work with Leopard Rock due to its difficulty. When expertly polished, this rock unveils a captivating glazed finish, further enhancing its aesthetic allure. Occasionally, Leopard Rock reveals the fascinating presence of petrified wood, adding an intriguing element to this exceptional Zimbabwean geological treasure.


Cobalt Stone is a stunning gem distinguished by its captivating purple coloration adorned with varying yellow and white markings and stripes. Additionally, it can exhibit intriguing brown or orange markings, enhancing its overall aesthetic appeal. Beyond its visual allure, cobalt is a brittle yet relatively rare hard metal, sharing a close resemblance to the appearance of iron and nickel. On the Moh's scale, Cobalt Stone registers a hardness rating between 5 and 6, making it a formidable material for sculptors and artisans seeking a combination of beauty and durability in their creations.

Black serpentine

Black Serpentine, a dark and lustrous metamorphic rock, finds favor among sculptors for its rich hue and smooth texture. Renowned for its deep black color, Black Serpentine allows artists to carve intricate details, creating sculptures that exude a sense of mystery and elegance. In Zimbabwean artistry, Black Serpentine is frequently chosen by sculptors for its versatility and aesthetic appeal, contributing to the creation of captivating and enduring pieces.

Lemon opal

Lemon Opal, distinct for its rich and vibrant coloration throughout the stone, presents a more challenging medium for sculptors compared to the typical Opal Stone. This heightened complexity arises primarily from the presence of quartz particles within the stone. Lemon Opalstone is easily recognizable by its striking yellow striations, adding a unique visual appeal. With a hardness rating on the Mohs scale ranging between 5.0-5.5, this stone requires skilled craftsmanship for intricate sculpting. In Zimbabwe, where artistic expression through stone carving is deeply rooted, Lemon Opal is used as a way of infusing a vibrant and challenging element into their creations.

Green opal

Rating on Mohs hardness scale (with 1 being as soft as talc and 10 being as hard as diamond): 5.0-5.5.Green Opal is a vibrant gemstone known for its translucent green hues and varied color patterns. Its lively appearance and smooth texture make it a popular choice for artisans in sculpture and jewelry. The gem's lush green tones bring freshness and vitality to artistic creations, contributing to its continued popularity among those who value the diversity and beauty of precious stones.

Fruit Opal

Fruit Opal, known for its warm and inviting tones reminiscent of ripe fruits, is utilized in Zimbabwean stone carving, enriching the country's tradition of sculpture. Characterized by a captivating color palette and varied patterns, the stone is valued for its aesthetic appeal and symbolic representation of abundance and vibrancy. Despite its relatively soft nature, artists skillfully use Fruit Opal to create sculptures that express warmth, joy, and a connection to the natural landscapes of Zimbabwe


Granite, a durable and igneous rock composed mainly of quartz, feldspar, and mica, holds significant cultural and artistic importance in Zimbabwe. Renowned for its hardness, resistance to weathering, and captivating aesthetic qualities, granite has become a preferred medium for sculptors in the region. The Shona people, in particular, have elevated stone sculpture to an art form, often utilizing locally sourced granite to create enduring masterpieces that reflect the rich cultural heritage of Zimbabwe. The unique veining patterns and diverse colors of Zimbabwean granite add complexity and depth to sculptures, contributing to the country's global reputation as a hub for stone carving excellence. Granite's resilience and timeless beauty make it an integral part of Zimbabwe's artistic expression, embodying a harmonious blend of tradition, natural beauty, and skilled craftsmanship.